What is anesthesia and anesthesia
Anesthesia, anesthesia, intravenous and regional anesthesia, cerebrospinal anesthesia, general and local anesthesia, analgesia – what do all these terms mean?
Anesthesia comes from the Greek ἀναισθησία – without feeling, that is, it means loss of sensitivity – full or partial. Anesthesia is the elimination or reduction of pain. That is, in fact, anesthesia and analgesia are synonyms. Anesthesia can be local, general, regional. General anesthesia is called anesthesia.
Narcosis (general anesthesia)
With anesthesia, drugs are applied to the brain, as a result, the human consciousness turns off. Thanks to anesthesia, it is possible to perform the most complex operations with minimal risk to life.
Painkillers have been around for a long time. From anesthetic plants: poppy, hemp, and cyclouts — they prepared infusions and decoctions and gave the patient to drink them. “Sleepy sponges” were also used. To do this, the sponge was saturated with plant juice and set on fire. The patient breathed in pairs and fell asleep.
Ether was described as anesthetic by Paracelsus in the 16th century, and in 1846 the first public demonstration of the use of ether anesthesia during surgery was held in Boston (USA). In Russia, this happened a year later – in 1847, N.I. Pirogov performed an operation using ether anesthesia.
Modern anesthesiologists have many means for anesthesia, which allows you to choose the drug and type of anesthesia for a certain intervention, suitable for a particular patient.
Anesthesia can be inhaled and intravenous. The ether anesthesia that Pirogov used was just inhalation, that is, the patient was allowed to inhale ether vapors before the operation.
Modern inhaled anesthetics are quite safe, they are quickly excreted from the body. In addition, inhaled anesthesia is simple to perform and easy to manage. But it can be used only for short-term interventions, since with deep anesthesia of this type severe respiratory distress is possible.
Pure inhalation anesthesia is rarely used today, mainly in pediatrics, as well as during operations for patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Usually, in adults, it is used as part of combined anesthesia.
Narcotic drugs may be administered intravenously. Such anesthesia has a longer duration and greater depth. There is classic intravenous analgesia; neuroleptanalgesia, which uses antipsychotics and anesthetics, ataralgesia – use a combination of tranquilizing, sedative and analgesic drugs, which gives gentle anesthesia.
The advantages of the intravenous method include the rapid introduction into anesthesia, the absence of a period of excitement characteristic of the inhalation method. But with intravenous administration, short-term anesthesia is created, and if a long operation is expected, then this type of anesthesia is not suitable. In such cases, resort to combined species.
In complex operations on internal organs, deepest anesthesia is required. It is achieved using combined endotracheal anesthesia. In this type of anesthesia, the drug enters the patient through the tube that is inserted into the trachea. Endotracheal anesthesia has several advantages: it requires less narcotic substance, with it the gastric contents cannot enter the lungs, airway remains free; this type of anesthesia can be used in surgery of the head, face, neck.
In some cases, combined anesthesia is used – the simultaneous use of different types of anesthesia (general and regional or local).
Local anesthesia (local anesthesia)
Local anesthesia – temporary anesthesia of a small area by chipping with anesthetics. The patient remains conscious. This type of anesthesia is used for small simple operations – dentistry, opening abscesses, etc. Anesthetic injected with shallow thin needles. The effect comes in a few minutes. Sometimes sensitivity is possible at the site of surgery, but the patient does not feel pain. To reduce anxiety, local anesthesia is sometimes supplemented with sedation, which causes calm, peace and a dreamlike state.
This type of anesthesia provides loss of sensitivity of a part of the patient’s body. For regional anesthesia, the same anesthetics are used as for local anesthesia, but they are injected into the nerve plexuses so that the sensitivity of any area of the body — legs, arms, etc., is lost. The patient’s consciousness is preserved, but he does not feel pain, and immobilization of this part of the body also occurs.
The analgesic effect in regional anesthesia is long, several hours. Its varieties are conduction anesthesia, epidural and spinal anesthesia.