Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the action performed when the heart and breathing stop in order to bring the victim back to life.
Why is it important to know the basic rules and techniques of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, even if you are not a medical professional?
About 80% of cases of sudden cardiac arrest occur outside medical facilities when there is no specialist nearby who is ready to provide qualified assistance. Severe brain damage begins within 4 minutes after cardiac arrest, so more than 90% of these cases are fatal even before the arrival of doctors. Whether a person who is in trouble will live will often depend on his relatives and relatives.
In what cases does the victim need help?
Follow the steps below each time you see a person without signs of consciousness. Without doing this, you cannot determine whether a person needs help or not.
Every detail is important.
The most basic techniques of basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation are described below, so there is nothing superfluous or even secondary here. If you want to learn how to provide first aid correctly in case of sudden cardiac arrest, you need to learn the given sequence of actions by heart and repeat it regularly. Remember, in an emergency you will not have time to think and remember – the road will be every second. If you miss any of the following actions (for example, starting resuscitation without calling a doctor), your help will no longer be complete. Learn these simple tricks, and one day you will save someone’s life.
Check if the victim is conscious.
Shake the victim by the shoulder and hail him loudly. Remember, a person’s spine may be damaged (for example, when falling), so you need to move it with caution, holding your head if necessary.
If the victim is not responding, call a doctor first or ask someone to do it.
Even knowing the techniques of cardiopulmonary resuscitation well, you can provide only basic help. For this reason, it is important to call an ambulance immediately.
After verifying that help is called out, check if the person is breathing.
A person lying on their backs may have blocked airways. Therefore, first of all, perform the following trick: kneel down on the side of the victim, put the palm of one hand on his forehead, two fingers of the other hand under his chin and gently throw his head back slightly. With this position of the head, the airways are maximally open. Remember that if you suspect an injury, this technique must be performed with extreme caution.
To check your breathing, bend over the victim so that your ear is above his mouth and you can see his chest. So you can hear and feel the breathing of the victim, see the movement of the chest.
If the victim is unconscious, but breathing, turn him over to a safe position – on his side (see below) and wait for help, constantly checking his breathing.
If there are no signs of breathing, proceed with resuscitation immediately.
If possible, carefully shift the victim onto a flat, solid surface.
Unfasten the clothes on his chest.
Take two artificial breaths.
To perform artificial respiration, continue to hold the victim’s head in a slightly tilted state; with the fingers of a hand lying on the victim’s forehead, pinch his nose, grip his mouth tightly with his lips and exhale slowly (at least 1 second). A sign of proper artificial respiration is the movement of the victim’s chest. For a second, tear off your lips from the victim’s mouth and let it out, then repeat the procedure. You can put a handkerchief or a special film with a hole on the victim’s mouth, but remember that this can complicate the use of artificial respiration.
If the victim does not begin to breathe or move, continue resuscitation. Do not waste time looking for a pulse. Immediately start a closed heart massage.
Kneeling on the side of the victim, lay the base of your hand in the middle of his chest between the nipples. Be careful: in women and obese people, the nipples may be too low, so in such cases the hand should be placed higher – on the lower third of the sternum. Never do indoor cardiac massage by pressing on the stomach or ribs. Put the base of one palm on the victim’s chest, the base of the other on top of it, clasp your hands in a lock and straighten at the elbows. Indoor cardiac massage should be performed, “hanging” over the victim. Do short shocks strictly vertically, so that the sternum of the victim each time moves by 4-5 cm. Fully weaken the pressure after each pressing, but do not take your hands off the chest of the victim. You should get 7-8 taps every 5 seconds. Without interruption, make 30 clicks, then repeat 2 artificial breaths.